Signs to recognize two types of cervical cancer

Abnormal vaginal bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, pelvic pain... are signs of endometrial carcinoma or uterine sarcoma.

Uterine cancer is a common gynecological cancer of two types, endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. Endometrial carcinoma is more common and easy to treat in its early stages, while uterine sarcoma is rare and difficult to treat. The disease may not have any symptoms in the early stages.

Endometrial carcinoma: Begins in the glandular or connective tissues of the endometrium (the lining of the uterus). This cancer has 3 types: endometrial adenocarcinoma (most commonly, affecting glandular tissues), endometrial stromal cancer (less common, affecting connective tissues). ), malignant mixed mullerian tumor (rare, involving both carcinoma and sarcoma).

Endometrial cancer symptoms may include bleeding that is not related to menstruation, bleeding after menopause, abnormal vaginal discharge without blood, difficulty or pain urinating, pain during intercourse, pelvic pain Unintentional weight loss.

Uterine sarcoma: Uterine sarcoma is a group of malignancies that arise primarily from the uterine muscle including smooth muscle, stroma, outer tissue, or tissue in the uterus.

Uterine sarcoma symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting, bleeding after menopause, abnormal vaginal discharge without blood, urinating more often. You may also have abdominal pain, lumps growing in your vagina, and feeling full or bloated. Loss of appetite, changes in bowel habits and in the bladder can occur when melanoma invades nearby organs.

Pelvic pain is one of the warning signs of cervical cancer. Photo: Freepik

Here are the possible causes of uterine cancer :

Hormonal imbalance: This factor has a certain role in uterine cancer. Estrogen crowding out progesterone can cause the cells and tissues of the endometrium to multiply faster than normal, leading to endometrial hyperplasia (abnormally enlarged endometrium).

High number of menstrual cycles: Women who have their first period before age 12 or menopause after age 50 have an increased risk of uterine cancer.

Late pregnancy: Uterine cancer is more common in non-pregnant women. Because during pregnancy the body produces more progesterone and less estrogen. Infertility is associated with an imbalance between progesterone and estrogen that contributes to this type of cancer.

Age: Endometrial cancer usually occurs in the post-menopausal age, the average age at diagnosis is 60, uncommon in people under 45 years of age.

Estrogen replacement therapy: Many people use estrogen therapy after menopause to treat symptoms such as vaginal dryness, osteoporosis, severe hot flashes, and trouble sleeping. This therapy increases the risk of uterine cancer, especially when the endometrium is exposed to estrogen without progesterone. Your doctor may prescribe a low dose of estrogen in combination with low progesterone for you.

Radiation exposure: Uterine cancer may be related to radiation exposure 5-25 years earlier. Women with retinoblastoma are more likely to develop uterine sarcoma.

Uterine cancer is usually divided into 3 stages. In the early (in situ) stage, cancer cells have grown in the uterus and have not spread to nearby organs or structures. In stage 2 (regional) stage, cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the aorta and in the pelvis. Stage 3 (metastasized), the tumor has spread to distant lymph nodes and other organs of the body. Most uterine cancers are detected early. Because a common sign is vaginal bleeding in women between 50-60 years old easily recognized as abnormal.

The above symptoms can also alert you to gynecological diseases such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, adenomas, atrophic vaginitis, endometrial atrophy, endometrial hyperplasia, and uterine polyps. If you have warning symptoms of uterine cancer, you should get screened for cancer. Early detection and treatment of the disease at an early stage is more effective, increasing the survival rate. The 5-year relative survival rate for early stage endometrial cancer is 95%, stage 2 is 69%, and only 17% is in the metastatic (late) stage.

Treatment will be based on the type of cancer, stage, grade, age, overall health, and desire to have children. Endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma are treated similarly with methods such as surgery (removal of the uterus, cervix , upper vagina and nearby tissues), chemotherapy, radiation, and chemotherapy. Hormones, immunotherapy, gene therapy... Uterine sarcoma is more dangerous and difficult to treat, often requiring chemotherapy in its early stages, but endometrial cancer may not be needed.

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